Evidence

We have developed a database of research evidence to help resettlement service providers in the U.S provide evidence-based interventions and best address barriers that resettlement clients and other ORR-eligible populations face. To date, an initial number of research studies have been added to the database. More studies will be added on an ongoing basis. Use the search area to access content based on criteria like outcome, intervention, year, and study type, or use our advanced search feature to find evidence based on specific, customized criteria. Click here to read Switchboard's Evidence Database Protocol.

Evidence Database | Advanced Evidence Search | Evidence Summaries

This library hosts materials developed by Switchboard and by former Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR)-funded technical assistance (TA) providers (most in fiscal years 2016-2018, with selected earlier materials). This library links materials externally where: their formats were incompatible with internal hosting; they were developed by current ORR-funded TA providers; or they were developed by non-ORR funded authors who granted permission for the links.

Author Definitions

BRYCS
Bridging Refugee Youth and Children's Services
CLINIC
Catholic Legal Immigration Network, Inc. National Citizenship Capacity Building Project
CVT
Center for Victims of Torture National Capacity Building Project for Specialized Torture Treatment Centers
Higher
Higher Employment Services Technical Assistance
Mercy Housing
Mercy Housing Refugee Housing Program
META
Monitoring and Evaluation Technical Assistance Project
NPCT
National Partnership for Community Training Mental Health Technical Assistance Program
Project SOAR
Project for Strengthening Organizations Assisting Refugees
Welcoming America
Welcoming America's Welcoming Refugees Program
Other
Authors not receiving technical assistance funding from ORR

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Paid Full TextTreatment of Sleep Disturbances in Refugees Suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Publication Year: 2017
Outcome(s): PTSD Reduction
Intervention(s): Mental health and psychosocial support services
Relevant ORR Program(s): Ethnic Community Self-Help Program, Preferred Communities, Refugee Health Promotion, Refugee Support Services, Services to Older Refugees
Direction of Evidence: Inconclusive or mixed impact
Strength of Evidence: Strong
Type of Study: Systematic review

Sleep disturbances are often referred to as the hallmark of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Although PTSD is prevalent in refugees, studies on sleep disturbances in trauma-affected refugees are scarce. This article presents the results of two studies: a systematic review of the literature on treatment of sleep disturbances in adult trauma-affected refugees and a study …

Treatment of Sleep Disturbances in Refugees Suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Read More »

Paid Full TextChronic Pain in Refugees with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A Systematic Review on Patients’ Characteristics and Specific interventions

Publication Year: 2018
Outcome(s): PTSD Reduction
Intervention(s): Mental health and psychosocial support services
Relevant ORR Program(s): Ethnic Community Self-Help Program, Preferred Communities, Refugee Health Promotion, Refugee Support Services, Services to Older Refugees
Direction of Evidence: Inconclusive or mixed impact, Positive impact
Strength of Evidence: Strong
Type of Study: Systematic review

Chronic pain in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a frequent symptom and a complicating factor in the treatment of patients. The study’s purpose is to systematically review the scientific literature on patients’ characteristics and the effects of specific interventions implemented for the treatment of chronic pain in traumatized refugees. The initial search resulted …

Chronic Pain in Refugees with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A Systematic Review on Patients’ Characteristics and Specific interventions Read More »

Free Full TextTreating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Female Victims of Trafficking Using Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Retrospective Audit

Publication Year: 2017
Outcome(s): General Distress Reduction, PTSD Reduction
Intervention(s): Mental health and psychosocial support services
Relevant ORR Program(s): Other
Direction of Evidence: Positive impact
Strength of Evidence: Suggestive
Type of Study: Suggestive evidence

Human trafficking is a form of modern slavery that involves the forced movement of people internally within countries, or externally across borders. Victims who are trafficked for sexual exploitation are subject to repeated, multiple trauma, and high rates of mental health problems including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is …

Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Female Victims of Trafficking Using Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Retrospective Audit Read More »

Free Full TextThe Effectiveness of Psychosocial Interventions in War-Traumatized Refugee and Internally Displaced Minors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Publication Year: 2017
Outcome(s): PTSD Reduction
Intervention(s): Mental health and psychosocial support services
Relevant ORR Program(s): Children's Services, Refugee Health Promotion, Refugee School Impact Program, Unaccompanied Children's Services, Unaccompanied Refugee Minors
Direction of Evidence: Inconclusive or mixed impact, Positive impact
Strength of Evidence: Strong
Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Background: The United Nations reported that in 2016 over 65 million people worldwide have forcibly left home. Over 50% are children and adolescents; a substantial number has been traumatized and displaced by war. Objective: To provide an overview of the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in this group we conducted a narrative review and a meta-analysis …

The Effectiveness of Psychosocial Interventions in War-Traumatized Refugee and Internally Displaced Minors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Read More »

Free Full TextTell Your Story: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online intervention to Reduce Mental Health Stigma and Increase Help-Seeking in Refugee Men with Posttraumatic Stress

Publication Year: 2020
Outcome(s): PTSD Reduction
Intervention(s): Mental health and psychosocial support services
Relevant ORR Program(s): Ethnic Community Self-Help Program, Preferred Communities, Refugee Health Promotion, Refugee Support Services
Direction of Evidence: Positive impact
Strength of Evidence: Moderate
Type of Study: Impact evaluation

Refugees report elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but are relatively unlikely to seek help for their symptoms. Mental health stigma is a key barrier to help-seeking amongst refugees. We evaluated the efficacy of an online intervention in reducing self-stigma and increasing help-seeking in refugee men. Participants were 103 refugee men with PTSD symptoms …

Tell Your Story: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online intervention to Reduce Mental Health Stigma and Increase Help-Seeking in Refugee Men with Posttraumatic Stress Read More »

Paid Full TextCultural Adaptations in Psychosocial Interventions for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Refugees: A Systematic Review

Publication Year: 2019
Outcome(s): PTSD Reduction
Intervention(s): Mental health and psychosocial support services
Relevant ORR Program(s): Ethnic Community Self-Help Program, Preferred Communities, Refugee Health Promotion, Refugee Support Services, Services to Older Refugees
Direction of Evidence: Inconclusive or mixed impact, Positive impact
Strength of Evidence: Strong
Type of Study: Systematic review

The aim of this study was to systematically review randomized controlled trials on non-pharmaceutical interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adult refugees with a focus on identifying common cultural adaptations and reviewing possible effects of such adaptations on outcomes. The conducted systematic search yielded 11 studies. The strongest support was for eye movement desensitization …

Cultural Adaptations in Psychosocial Interventions for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Refugees: A Systematic Review Read More »

Free Full TextEvidence-Based Care for Iraqi, Kurdish, and Syrian Asylum Seekers and Refugees of the Syrian Civil War: A Systematic Review

Publication Year: 2016
Outcome(s): PTSD Reduction
Intervention(s): Mental health and psychosocial support services
Relevant ORR Program(s): Ethnic Community Self-Help Program, Preferred Communities, Refugee Health Promotion, Refugee Support Services, Services to Older Refugees
Direction of Evidence: Positive impact
Strength of Evidence: Strong
Type of Study: Systematic review

We conducted a systematic review of literature reporting on the prevalence of assessment measures, treatments, and biomarkers used in the diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Iraqi, Kurdish, and Syrian refugees. We performed a search of medical, psychological, and sociological databases on all relevant literature published between January 2011 and March 2016. …

Evidence-Based Care for Iraqi, Kurdish, and Syrian Asylum Seekers and Refugees of the Syrian Civil War: A Systematic Review Read More »

Free Full TextReview of Refugee Mental Health Interventions Following Resettlement: Best Practices And Recommendations

Publication Year: 2010
Outcome(s): Anxiety Reduction, Depression Reduction, General Distress Reduction, PTSD Reduction
Intervention(s): Mental health and psychosocial support services
Relevant ORR Program(s): Ethnic Community Self-Help Program, Preferred Communities, Refugee Health Promotion, Refugee Support Services, Unaccompanied Refugee Minors
Direction of Evidence: Inconclusive or mixed impact
Strength of Evidence: Strong
Type of Study: Systematic review

Psychologists and other health professionals who deliver mental health services for individuals from refugee backgrounds need to have confidence that the therapeutic interventions they employ are appropriate and effective for the clients with whom they work. The review briefly surveys refugee research, examines empirical evaluations of therapeutic interventions in resettlement contexts, and provides recommendations for …

Review of Refugee Mental Health Interventions Following Resettlement: Best Practices And Recommendations Read More »

Free Full TextTranscultural Telepsychiatry and Its Impact on Patient Satisfaction

Publication Year: 2010
Outcome(s): General Distress Reduction
Intervention(s): Mental health and psychosocial support services
Relevant ORR Program(s): Ethnic Community Self-Help Program, Preferred Communities, Refugee Health Promotion, Refugee Support Services, Services to Older Refugees
Direction of Evidence: Positive impact
Strength of Evidence: Suggestive
Type of Study: Suggestive evidence

A telepsychiatry project was conducted to improve access to culturally appropriate care providers (i.e. culturally competent, bilingual clinicians) by the use of videoconferencing. A self-completed retrospective questionnaire survey was conducted with asylum seekers, refugees, and migrants. The purpose of the referral was either for diagnostic assessment with a subsequent treatment recommendation, or for treatment via …

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Free Full TextPrevention of Psychological Distress and Promotion of Resilience Amongst Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Resettlement Countries

Publication Year: 2019
Outcome(s): Anxiety Reduction, Depression Reduction, General Distress Reduction, PTSD Reduction
Intervention(s): Mental health and psychosocial support services
Relevant ORR Program(s): Unaccompanied Children's Services, Unaccompanied Refugee Minors
Direction of Evidence: Inconclusive or mixed impact, Positive impact
Strength of Evidence: Strong
Type of Study: Systematic review

As increasing numbers of unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) are arriving in Europe, there is a need to investigate which factors promote psychological resilience and improve their mental health. This review aims to identify preventive post settlement influences, including living arrangements, access to mental health services, and effective treatments that may improve mental health outcomes. A …

Prevention of Psychological Distress and Promotion of Resilience Amongst Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Resettlement Countries Read More »